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Science Writing Tips
We now run through the standard structure of a formal scientific paper. The slightly differing structures of the other types will then be summarized as deviations from this. The usual structure of a paper is as follows:
1. Title: The purpose of your title is to describe the contents of the paper in very few words, and in a way which catches and holds the attention of as many people as possible. A good title which fulfils these requirements is therefore vital. Whatever provisional title you gave the paper during its composition, the title should be finalized once the paper is written, because you will then have gained your best perspective on the material.
2. Abstract or summary: The abstract of a research paper is designed to inform readers who persist beyond the title what the paper is about, without their having to read the whole work. The aim is to abstract the essence of the work. In an abstract everything is subordinate to communicating what the paper is about. Do not be afraid to spend a disproportionate amount of the abstract setting up underlying ideas: comprehension is your aim. Imagine you are explaining your work verbally to a colleague in three minutes. You should state what you did, how you did it, and give your conclusions, but be sparing as to why; the Introduction is the proper place to explain your motivations. Stress the single underlying theme of the paper. Since the author's perspective is clearest after the paper has been completed, that is when the abstract should be written. Do not bother with a preliminary version; you should have begun writing the paper with a preliminary draft of the Introduction. Unless the paper is very short, abstracts of fewer than 150 words ignore detail which readers are capable of absorbing; more than 250 words causes saturation.
3. The Table of Contents: A table of contents should include all section headings, sub-section headings (making clear on sight their subordinate status), and Appendices with their titles. It follows that the headings of sections and sub-sections should be usefully informative. Include all section and sub-section headings, appendices.
4. The Introduction: The Introduction is the start of the paper proper; together with the end, it therefore plays the most important part in communicating your message. It introduces the reader to the concerns you have. The Introduction is the place to set out the logical structure of the work and, additionally, to explain the overall purpose of the work and the motivation for it; the why of it. Without this it will make no sense to the reader no matter how well written. Raise the questions that made you curious, and why you were led to do the work. Explain what was the fate of those questions: to be answered, and what those answers are; to be circumvented or transcended; or to reveal fresh questions, whose fate must in turn be discussed. Since the Introduction is the start of the paper proper, that is where you should begin your writing. Having written the paper, you then tailor the Introduction more closely to what emerged. Think of this tailoring as the last stage in writing the first draft, not the first stage in revising it.
5. The Main Working: It is at this point that the individuality of the material asserts itself. Each section has a distinct structure, subordinate to the overall structure of the paper, and each sub-section has a structure which is part of the overall structure of that section, and is distinct from the structures of the other sub-sections. In some writing you will have complete freedom to choose this structure, in other writing a skeleton will be provided - such as the "Methods, Results, Discussion" of many papers in the biological sciences. Parallel with this hierarchy of sub-structures is a hierarchy of aims. The overall purpose of the work is what we called, in the previous section, the why of it. Below this, each section should have a distinct aim, subordinate to the overall purpose of the paper, and each sub-section should have an aim which is subordinate to the aim of that section, and is distinct from the aims of the other sub-sections. The skeleton of sections and sub-sections proceeds from the hierarchy which the writer sees; it is when the aim changes that a new section or sub-section should be started. Always state at the start of a section or sub-section what its aim is so as to guide the reader throughout it to its end. Do not worry if you find you need to re-order the material; this is the first time that you are considering the reader's point of view instead of your own. At this point advice is of a different type, concerned with expository technique and style, not with the molding of your material to the standard structure of scientific papers.
6. The Conclusion: The paper should end with a summing-up, which in all but the shortest papers should be a separate section. Your purpose is to convey the unity of the structure of the material, since this is what will implant itself in the reader's mind. The title of this section varies throughout the literature; commonly you will find Conclusion, Conclusions, Concluding Remarks, Summary, Summary-and-Discussion. Whatever it is called, this last section is a summing up of the material, emphasizing the unity of its structure and theme, and putting it in its wider context so as to give the reader an accurate perspective on it after the close-up view. Nothing should be stated which has not already been covered in the paper itself, but it can be stated in language which presumes that the reader is familiar with the contents of the paper. Emphasize the main points of the paper and how they alter the picture from before the paper was written. Do they alter the wider field in which the material is located; do they propose a new hypothesis or modify an accepted hypothesis; do they verify or disprove a hypothesis, or imply large changes in its plausibility? Explain to what extent the questions raised in the Introduction have been answered. You may also state what points need following up, what lines now look promising or unpromising, and you may speculate concisely as to what lies along them. Explain (if it is not obvious) why your paper stopped where it did.
7. Acknowledgements: Thank your sources of funds if it is a condition of the funding, or if you feel it appropriate. Thank by name those people without whose personal intellectual influence the paper would have been significantly different. Explain briefly why you're thanking each person or group. Do not hide from the responsibility of being personal at the one point where it is mandatory. It is a matter of professionalism and courtesy to offer your thanks, and to do it gracefully.
8. Appendices: The purpose of an appendix is to accept subsidiary material, so that the reader maintains a continuous train of thought through the main development. Large amounts of data should obviously be placed in appendices. You may also need at some point in the paper to use a result which is not obvious or well-known, and which is not set out (at all, or satisfactorily) in the literature. In that case you should do what you would if it were in the literature: refer to it, but set it out yourself and place it separately, in an appendix. An appendix is for material of intermediate length: if the working is short, it should be integrated into the text; if long, it should be published separately. There is no "right number" of appendices for a paper of a given length; this depends entirely on the material.
9. References: In the text, you should refer to papers which make specific points you need, and influential works which establish the context of your work. Whenever you refer to a work, make a note of it (on paper or computer file) and, at the end of the first draft, compile full details of every reference: authors in order and their initials, journal names in full, article titles in full, volumes, first and last page numbers (journals and themed collections of papers), year of publication, publisher and place of publication (and perhaps ISBN number) for books, editors of themed collections such as conference proceedings. Not all journals require all of these details, but you don't know in advance which will be needed; you may have to submit the paper to a second journal if the first rejects it, and you may need the reference again in further publications. Always conform to the style of the journal you choose.
10. Footnotes and Endnotes: Do not defer subsidiary points to footnotes at the bottom of pages. When a footnote is read, it disrupts the reader's flow; when it is ignored, its point is missed. Integrate the material into the text or appendices to minimize disruption (perhaps in shortened form), or drop it. The same applies to endnotes, which are deferred footnotes or ultra-short appendices. This advice is specific to science writing.
Do note that these above given tips are provided only as a general guideline and would vary based on the requirement of the project. However even with these instructive steps it is not possible for most people to do a good science paper and so on like how our expert research writers do. This is here where you need the help of our research company. So why wait? Read below for more details.
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